Posted by: maryraab | March 22, 2009

The Total Product Concept

Theodore Levitt (1980) distinguishes between

  • Generic product
  • Expected product
  • Augmented product
  • Potential Product

Generic product
Generic means type
Generic product is the basic product
This first product level = core product = core benefit
What is the basic thing that people are buying?
The core benefit of buying a drill is making holes
The core benefit of a car is transportation

The expected product
People are not satisfied with the core benefit of a product or service
They expect additional things
This product level comprises all the attributes offered in the actual product
It includes the design of the product, packaging, quality levels, features and brandnames
If these features exceed the buyers’ expectations they will be satisfied.
A CD or DVD player is expected to offer a certain quality of sound, a choice of battery, control lights, look sophisticated

The augmented product
Competition forces firms to offer more than the expected products.
The augmented product has to offer additional aspects or elements that support the core and actual product features
Customer service, delivery, after-sales service, guarantee
Many products are marketed at augmented product level  – USP

The augmented product
Products can be augmented by

Example: Dell computers

Problem: today‘s augmented products become tomorrow‘s expected products

The potential product
Comprises all the augmentations and transformations a product might undergo in the future.
The emphasis is put on future product improvements to keep the product competitive
The marketers must be creative, innovative
The potential product has to include everything that might be done to attract and keep customers

Essential aspects of a product
Product benefits: all the elements of an offer which consumers perceive as meeting their needs and wants and provide satisfaction through performance and image
Product attributes: quality, features, styling, design, branding, and packaging
The marketing support services: aftersales service, installation, delivery, guarantee, etc.



  1. i love it :))

  2. Wow, my retail concept is recommended as further reading. The wonders of wordpress automation 🙂

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